Final Exam Study Guide

Please be sure to complete the study guide (Some is already done!)  and be prepared to turn it in on the day of your final exam.  
Semester 1 Final Exam
Chapter 1 : Sources of Democratic Tradition (Greece, Rome, Judaism, Christianity, and England)
Chapter 2: Enlightenment (Philosophy, Ideas spread, American Republic)
Chapter 3: French Revolution (Eve of Rev, Rev. Unfolds, Radical days, Napoleon)
Chapter 5: The Industrial Revolution (Dawn of I. R., Britain leads, Social impact, New ways of thinking)
Chapter 6: Life in the Industrial Age (I.R. Spreads, Rise of Cities, Changing Attitudes, Arts)
Chapter 9 Section 1 only: Imperialism
Chapter 1
Senate –
Punic Wars-
Julius Caesar-
Augustus Caesar/Pax Romana-
Moses -
Magna Carta-
 Common laws-
Absolute Monarchy-
Power of the Purse-
English Civil War-
Glorious Revolution-
English Bill of Rights-
Chapter 2:
Natural Laws- rules discove
Thomas Hobbes- The Leviathan/ absolute monarchy.
John Locke- Two Treaties of Government/ few rules
Philosophes- French philosophers
Voltaire-freedom of speech/ friend of Catherine the Great
Montesqieu- wrote Spirit of the Laws= separation of powers
Diderot- 28 volume encyclopedia
Mary Wollstoncraft- vindication of the rights of women
Adam Smith- economist/ Laissez y Faire= free market
Baroque Art- grand formal often focused on religion
Rococo- light charming elegant and used pastel colors
Catherine The Great- Empress of Russia/ equality and liberty
Joseph II- Austria/ freedom of press
Frederick II- Prussia/ religious freedom
Natural Rights- right given to people at birth. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of property
Salon- an informal gathering where people would talk about new political thoughts and ideas
George Washington- Led American Forces/1st president
Popular Sovereignty – Government power comes from the people.
Battle of Saratoga – Turning point/France gets involved in American Revolution
Yorktown- Final battle of the American Revolution
Treaty of Paris – Document that officially ended the American Revolution and recognized independence.
Federal Republic – Type of government where powers are divided by local and federal authorities.
 Chapter 3
Ancien Regime- Old order of Europe/France
The Estates- 3 estates/social classes of France
Deficit Spending- Spending money you don’t have
Louis XVI- Beheaded
Marie Antoinette- Beheaded
Jacque Necker- Financial Advisor hired/fired by Louis XVI
Estates General Meeting- Meetings of the 3 estates
Tennis Court Oath – Third estates declares themselves National Assembly/Promise to make France’s 1st constitution.
The Bastille – First violence of the Revolution/Symbolized tyranny.
Marquis De Lafayette – Main author of Declaration of Rights of Man
Sans-Culottes – Political club of working class/without breeches.
Republic – Government where people choose representatives
Jacobins – Radical political club of lawyers and intellectuals
Suffrage – The right to vote
Robespierre – Led the Reign of Terror
Reign Of Terror – Most violent phase of the French Revolution
Guillotine- Humane form of execution
Napoleon – Military commander becomes emperor of France/ Napoleonic Code/Congress of Vienna
Nationalism – Pride/Devotion for your country/nation.
Chapter 5
Enclosure – Process of sealing off/consolidating land that was once worked by peasants.
James Watts – Improved Newcomen’s steam engine.
Smelt- process for separating iron from its ore (other minerals)
Capitol- money used to invest in an enterprise
Enterprise- business organizations
Entrepreneur- those who managed and assumed financial risks of starting new businesses.
Flying Shuttle- John Kay
Spinning Jenny- James Hargreaves
Water Frame- Richard Arkwright
Urbanization- Movement of people to cities
Tenements- multi story buildings/ working class homes
Labor Union- worker’s organizations/ fight for reforms
Thomas Malthus- laissez faire economist/ essay on principle population/ not enough food
David Ricardo - laissez faire/ iron law of wages/ wage increases wouldn’t help
Jeremy Bentham- utilitarianist/ said government had an obligation to help
Utilitarianism- greatest happiness for the greatest number
Socialism- a form of government where the means of production belong to the people as a whole
Means of Production- the factories, the farms, railroads, things that make money
Robert Owen- socialist/ created his own Utopia
Karl Marx- wrote Communist Manifesto
Communism- form of socialism/ war between the haves and have nots
Proletariat- working classes
Chapter 6
Henry Bessemer- Bessemer process (separates steel from iron)
Alfred Nobel- dynamite, Nobel peace prize
Dynamo- Michael Faraday/ machine that generates electricity
Thomas Edison- invented incandescent light bulb
Marconi- created radio
Stock- shares or portions of a large business/ corporations
Germ Theory- stated that microbes and illness could be linked/ Louis Pasteur
Florence Nightingale- she started school for nurses/ called for better hygiene
Joseph Lister- developed anti-septic/ anti-biotics
Urban Renewal- process of granting money to rebuild portions of the cities
Standard of Living- measures quantity and quality of your needs and wants
Cult of Domesticity- the idealization of the woman and the home
Temperance Movement- sought to ban alcohol
Women’s Suffrage- women’s right to vote
John Dalton- atomic theory
Charles Darwin- Origin of Species/ theory of evolution
Romanticism- art style that broke away from logic and reason
Lord Byron- Byronic hero/Romanticism
Victor Hugo- Les Miserables, Hunchback of Notre Dame
Beethoven- romantic composer
Realism- art style focused on harsh city living
Charles Dickens- Oliver Twist, realist
Impressionism- art style focusing on the viewer’s first impression of object or picture
Post-Impressionism- art style uses a variety of techniques/ tiny dots/ sharp distinct brush strokes
Claude Monet- impressionism
Van Gogh- post-impressionism
Chapter 9
Imperialism- The political , economic and cultural domination of one country by another
Five reasons for imperialism (P.E.R.M.S.)-